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Essentials of the GSM air interface & signal. Details of carrier, slot structure, transmission burst, duplex scheme, power class. These diagrams show how timeslots and corresponding frequencies are allocated in the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications. The UMTS World is an 3G mobile system news and information provider. Cell search procedure Slot synchronisation.

GSM Timeslot & Frequency Specifications

Again, these tail bits at the start of the GSM burst give time for the transmitter to ramp up its power 39 bits of information: The first national consumer UMTS networks launched in with a heavy emphasis on telco-provided mobile applications such as mobile TV and video calling. The 10 ms radio frames of the Primary and Secondary SCH are divided into 15 slots, each of length chips. Construction of these trial networks was scheduled to finish during the fourth quarter of , but delays meant that construction was not complete until early Some GSM bursts are used for carrying data while others are used for control information.

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These speeds are significantly faster than the 9. The first national consumer UMTS networks launched in with a heavy emphasis on telco-provided mobile applications such as mobile TV and video calling. While they suggest covering just a channel access method namely a variant of CDMA , they are actually the common names for the whole air interface standards.

It supports conventional cellular voice, text and MMS services, but can also carry data at high speeds, allowing mobile operators to deliver higher bandwidth applications including streaming and broadband Internet access. In contrast, the competing CDMA system uses one or more available 1. W-CDMA systems are widely criticized for their large spectrum usage, which delayed deployment in countries that acted relatively slowly in allocating new frequencies specifically for 3G services such as the United States.

Compatibility with CDMA would have beneficially enabled roaming on existing networks beyond Japan, since Qualcomm CDMA networks are widely deployed, especially in the Americas, with coverage in 58 countries as of [update]. However, divergent requirements resulted in the W-CDMA standard being retained and deployed globally.

W-CDMA has then become the dominant technology with commercial networks in countries as of April Despite incompatibility with existing air-interface standards, late introduction and the high upgrade cost of deploying an all-new transmitter technology, W-CDMA has become the dominant standard. From an engineering point of view, W-CDMA provides a different balance of trade-offs between cost, capacity, performance, and density[ citation needed ]; it also promises to achieve a benefit of reduced cost for video phone handsets.

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Details

There were many requirements that were placed on the system, and many of these had a direct impact on the air interface. Elements including the modulation, GSM slot structure, burst structure and the like were all devised to provide the optimum performance. During the development of the GSM standard very careful attention was paid to aspects including the modulation format, the way in which the system is time division multiplexed, all had a considerable impact on the performance of the system as a whole.

For example, the modulation format for the GSM air interface had a direct impact on battery life and the time division format adopted enabled the cellphone handset costs to be considerably reduced as detailed later. It is resilient to noise when compared to many other forms of modulation. Radiation outside the accepted bandwidth is lower than other forms of phase shift keying. It has a constant power level which allows higher efficiency RF power amplifiers to be used in the handset, thereby reducing current consumption and conserving battery life.

GMSK, Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying is a form of phase modulation that is used in a number of portable radio and wireless applications. It has advantages in terms of spectral efficiency as well as having an almost constant amplitude which allows for the use of more efficient transmitter power amplifiers, thereby saving on current consumption, a critical issue for battery power equipment.

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As GMSK modulation has been used, the unwanted or spurious emissions outside the nominal bandwidth are sufficiently low to enable adjacent channels to be used from the same base station. Typically each base station will be allocated a number of carriers to enable it to achieve the required capacity.

The data transported by the carrier serves up to eight different users under the basic system by splitting the carrier into eight time slots. The basic carrier is able to support a data throughput of approximately kbps, but as some of this supports the management overhead, the data rate allotted to each time slot is only In addition to this error correction is required to overcome the problems of interference, fading and general data errors that may occur. This means that the available data rate for transporting the digitally encoded speech is 13 kbps for the basic vocoders.

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